Allan and Barbara Pease are the internationally renowned experts in human relations and body language, whose 20 million book sales world- wide have turned. Body language is nonverbal communication that involves body movement. body language which is absolutely non-verbal means of communication. People in. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, The Body Language Project: Dating, Attraction and Sexual Body Language.
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17 Tactics for Reading People's Body Language. By Drake Baer. What you say communicates only about half of what people hear. According to UCLA professor . GESTURES: YOUR BODY SPEAKS. Learn to Look for Body Language. Amid polite applause, the speaker shuffled toward the platform, his face registering the . PDF | Barnga was created by Sivasailam Thiagarajan (known as Thiagi) and is considered the classic of cross-cultural simulation activities. I recently used the.
Think about the very different messages given by a weak handshake, a warm bear hug, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on the arm, for example. Have you ever felt uncomfortable during a conversation because the other person was standing too close and invading your space? We all have a need for physical space, although that need differs depending on the culture, the situation, and the closeness of the relationship.
You can use physical space to communicate many different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy and affection, aggression or dominance. Can nonverbal communication be faked?
There are many books and websites that offer advice on how to use body language to your advantage. For example, they may instruct you on how to sit a certain way, steeple your fingers, or shake hands in order to appear confident or assert dominance. And the harder you try, the more unnatural your signals are likely to come across. How nonverbal communication can go wrong What you communicate through your body language and nonverbal signals affects how others see you, how well they like and respect you, and whether or not they trust you.
Unfortunately, many people send confusing or negative nonverbal signals without even knowing it. And if he takes your hand, he lunges to get it and then squeezes so hard it hurts. Jack is a caring guy who secretly wishes he had more friends, but his nonverbal awkwardness keeps people at a distance and limits his ability to advance at work.
Arlene is attractive and has no problem meeting eligible men, but she has a difficult time maintaining a relationship for longer than a few months. Arlene is funny and interesting, but even though she constantly laughs and smiles, she radiates tension.
Her shoulders and eyebrows are noticeably raised, her voice is shrill, and her body is stiff. Being around Arlene makes many people feel anxious and uncomfortable. Arlene has a lot going for her that is undercut by the discomfort she evokes in others. When Sharon had something to say, Ted was always ready with wild eyes and a rebuttal before she could finish her thought. This made Sharon feel ignored, and soon she started dating other men.
Ted loses out at work for the same reason. His inability to listen to others makes him unpopular with many of the people he most admires.
These smart, well-intentioned people struggle in their attempt to connect with others. The sad thing is that they are unaware of the nonverbal messages they communicate.
How to improve nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is a rapidly flowing back-and-forth process that requires your full focus on the moment-to-moment experience. As well as being fully present, you can improve how you communicate nonverbally by learning to manage stress and developing your emotional awareness.
Learn to manage stress in the moment Stress compromises your ability to communicate. And remember: emotions are contagious. If you are upset, it is very likely to make others upset, thus making a bad situation worse. Take a moment to calm down before you jump back into the conversation. The fastest and surest way to calm yourself and manage stress in the moment is to employ your senses—what you see, hear, smell, taste, and touch—or through a soothing movement. By viewing a photo of your child or pet, smelling a favorite scent, listening to a certain piece of music, or squeezing a stress ball, for example, you can quickly relax and re-focus.
Since everyone responds differently, you may need to experiment to find the sensory experience that works best for you. Develop your emotional awareness In order to send accurate nonverbal cues, you need to be aware of your emotions and how they influence you. You also need to be able to recognize the emotions of others and the true feelings behind the cues they are sending.
Create trust in relationships by sending nonverbal signals that match up with your words. Respond in ways that show others that you understand and care.
Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said. Is the person saying one thing, but their body language conveying something else? Look at nonverbal communication signals as a group. Consider all of the nonverbal signals you are receiving, from eye contact to tone of voice and body language. Taken together, are their nonverbal cues consistent—or inconsistent—with what their words are saying?
Trust your instincts. Evaluating nonverbal signals Eye contact — Is the person making eye contact? For example, in traditional Anglo-Saxon culture, avoiding eye contact usually portrays a lack of confidence, certainty, or truthfulness.
Main article: Haptic communication Haptics, a subcategory of Body Language, is the study of touching and how it is used in communication. Touching can be used to sooth, for amusement during play, to flirt, to express power and maintain bonds between people, such as with baby and mother. Touching can carry distinct emotions and also show the intensity of those emotions.
Touch absent of other cues can signal anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude and sympathy depending on the length and type of touching that is performed. Many factors also contribute to the meaning of touching such as the length of the touch and location on the body in which the touching takes place.
Research has also shown that people can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. Touching stresses how special the message is that is being sent by the initiator.
For example, Jones and Yarbrough explained that strategic touching is a series of touching usually with an ulterior or hidden motive thus making them seem to be using touch as a game to get someone to do something for them.
The amount of touching that occurs within a culture is also culturally dependent. Main article: Proxemics Diagram of Edward T.
Hall 's personal reaction bubbles , showing radius in feet Another notable area in the nonverbal world of body language is that of spatial relationships, which is also known as Proxemics.
Introduced by Edward T. Hall in , proxemics is the study of measurable distances between people as they interact with one another. Hall also came up with four distinct zones in which most men operate:  Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering Close phase — less than 6 inches 15 cm Far phase — 6 to 18 inches 15 to 46 cm Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family members Close phase — 1.
In addition to physical distance, the level of intimacy between conversants can be determined by "socio-petal socio-fugal axis", or the "angle formed by the axis of the conversants' shoulders". For example, when people talk they like to face each other. If forced to sit side by side, their body language will try to compensate for this lack of eye-to-eye contact by leaning in shoulder-to-shoulder.
Hall suggested that "physical contact between two people They often greet one another by kissing on the cheeks.
North Americans , on the other hand, prefer to shake hands. While they have made some physical contact with the shaking of the hand, they still maintain a certain amount of physical space between the other person. The manner in which something is said can affect how it should be interpreted. Shouting, smiling, irony and so on may add a layer of meaning which is neither pure body language nor speech. Attitude[ edit ] Human communication is extremely complex and one must look at the whole in order to make any determination as to the attitudes being expressed.
Whilst there is a wider debate about the percentage share which should be attributed to each of the three contributing factors, it is generally agreed upon that body language plays a fundamental role in determining the attitude a person conveys. A person may alter their body language in order to alter the attitude they convey; this may in turn influence the rapport they have with another person.
For instance, if an interviewer adopts a formal attitude then this conveys a more business like impression, which may encourage the interviewee to give more serious answers. This may develop a more professional rapport overall between them. Alternatively, if the interviewer adopts an informal attitude, this conveys a more open and casual impression. This may be used to elicit a more open response from the interviewee, encourage them to give more revealing answers, and potentially develop a more personal rapport.
Universal vs. Where Darwin notes similarity in expression among animals and humans, the Cultural Equivalence Model notes similarity in expression across cultures in humans, even though they may be completely different.
One of the strongest pieces of evidence that supports this model was a study conducted by Paul Ekman and Friesen , where members of a preliterate tribe in Papua New Guinea reliably recognized the facial expressions of individuals from the United States. Culturally isolated and with no exposure to US media, there was no possibility of cross-cultural transmission to the Papuan tribesmen.